Malignant transformation of WHO grade I meningiomas after surgery or radiosurgery
Malignant transformation of WHO grade I meningiomas after surgery or radiosurgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Free PMC article
Background: The incidence and clinical features of the malignant transformation of benign meningiomas are poorly understood. This study examined the risk of the malignant transformation of benign meningiomas after surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery.
Methods: We systematically reviewed studies published between 1979 and 2019 using PubMed, Scopus, and other sources. We analyzed pooled data according to the PRISMA guideline to clarify the incidence rate of malignant transformation (IMT) and factors affecting malignant transformation in surgically or radiosurgically treated benign meningiomas.
Results: IMT was 2.98/1000 patient-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-4.3) in 13 studies in a single-arm meta-analysis. Although the evidence level of the included studies was low, the heterogeneity of the incidence was mostly explained by the tumor location. In meta-regression analysis, skull base tumors had a significantly lower IMT than non-skull base tumors, but no gender association was observed. IMT after radiosurgery in 9 studies was 0.50/1000 person-years (95% CI = 0.02-1.38). However, a higher proportion of skull base tumors, lower proportion of males, and lower salvage surgery rate were observed in the radiosurgery group than in the surgery group. The median time to malignant change was 5 years (interquartile range = 2.5-8.2), and the median survival after malignant transformation was 4.7 years (95% CI = 3.7-8) in individual case data.
Conclusion: IMT of benign meningioma was significantly affected by the tumor location. Radiosurgery did not appear to increase IMT, but exact comparisons were difficult because of differences in study populations.
Keywords: incidence; malignant transformation; meningioma; meta-analysis; radiosurgery.