Genome editing: A perspective on the application of CRISPR/Cas9 to study human diseases (Review).
Rodríguez-Rodríguez DR, et al. Int J Mol Med. 2019.
Genome editing reemerged in 2012 with the development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, which is a genetic manipulation tool derived from the defense system of certain bacteria against viruses and plasmids. This method is easy to apply and has been used in a wide variety of experimental models, including cell lines, laboratory animals, plants, and even in human clinical trials. The CRISPR/Cas9 system consists of directing the Cas9 nuclease to create a site‑directed double‑strand DNA break using a small RNA molecule as a guide. A process that allows a permanent modification of the genomic target sequence can repair the damage caused to DNA. In the present study, the basic principles of the CRISPR/Cas9 system are reviewed, as well as the strategies and modifications of the enzyme Cas9 to eliminate the off‑target cuts, and the different applications of CRISPR/Cas9 as a system for visualization and gene expression activation or suppression. In addition, the review emphasizes on the potential application of this system in the treatment of different diseases, such as pulmonary, gastrointestinal, hematologic, immune system, viral, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and cancer.