INTRODUCTION: Radiosurgery (RS) and fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) are part of the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of cavernous sinus meningiomas. We propose a systematic review of the local tumor control and clinical outcomes after monofractionated radiosurgical treatment, including gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and linear accelerator (Linac RS), or fractionated radiotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current review and meta-analysis adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. We performed a search in PubMed, Embase, and Medline based on the following mesh terms, used alone or in diverse combinations, in both title and abstract: “cavernous sinus,” “meningioma,” “radiosurgery,” “gamma knife,” “linac,” “cyberknife,” and “radiotherapy”. We screened 425 studies. We selected 36 studies, matching all selection criteria: 24 for GK, 5 for Linac, and 7 for FRT.
RESULTS: Were included 2817 patients (GKRS, n = 2047, LinacRS, n = 350, FRT, n = 420). Half of patients benefited from upfront RS or FRT; the other half benefited from adjuvant RS or FRT (combined approach or tumor recurrence). The mean gross target volume (GTV) was smaller for RS as compared to FRT (p = 0.07). The median marginal doses were 13.9 Gy (range, 11 to 28) for GKRS and 14 Gy (range, 12.8 to 17.7) for LinacRS. For FRT, patients received a mean dose of 51.2 Gy (25.5 fractions, 1.85 Gy each). The mean overall follow-up values were 48 months (range, 15 to 89) for GKRS, 69 months (range, 46 to 87) for Linac, and 59.5 months (range, 33 to 83) for FRT. PFS at 5 years for GKRS, LinacRS, and FRT were respectively 93.6%, 95.6%, and 97.4% (p = 0.32, the Kruskal-Wallis). Monofractionated treatments (GKRS and LinacRS) induced more tumor volume regression than FRT (p = 0.001). Tumor recurrence or progression ranged between 3 and 5.8%, without statistically significant differences between modalities (p > 0.05). Trigeminal symptoms improved in approximately 54%, and III-IV-VI cranial nerves (CN) palsies improved in approximately 45%. After GKRS, visual acuity improved in 21% (not enough data available for other modalities). De novo deficits occurred in 5 to 7.5%. Adverse radiation effects appeared in 4.6 to 9.3% (all techniques pooled).
CONCLUSION: RS achieved a twice-higher rate of tumor volume regression than FRT. GKRS series reported an improvement in visual acuity in 21% of the cases. GKRS, Linac, and FRT provided similar clinical post therapeutic outcomes for the trigeminal and oculomotor CN.