Incidence of Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhages in a Multiethnic South Asian Population.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Mar;26(3):666-672. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.10.044. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Incidence of Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhages in a Multiethnic South Asian Population.



Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 25% of all strokes in Singapore. Incidence of recurrent ICH is not well studied, and previous studies have reported inconsistent findings in the rate and risk factors associated with ICH recurrences. We aimed to study the incidence of recurrent ICHs in Singapore and to identify the associated risk factors as well as pattern of ICH recurrence.


A retrospective review of all consecutive admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Neuroscience Institute between January 2006 and November 2013 was performed. Imaging and computerized clinical records were reviewed. The demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of index and recurrent ICH were compared. Univariate analysis was performed using chi-square and Student’s t-test, and logistic regression was used to analyze the predictors of ICH recurrence.


In total, 1708 patients who survived the index ICH beyond 14 days were followed up for 6398 person-years. Sixty patients developed 68 recurrences of ICH, giving rise to an annual incidence rate of ICH recurrence of 1.1%. A history of previous ischemic stroke (P = .001) and index lobar location of ICH (P = .004) were significantly associated with the occurrence of ICH recurrences on multivariate analysis. The most common pattern on ICH recurrence was ganglionic-ganglionic (44.1%), followed by lobar-lobar (17.6%). Overall mortality of recurrent ICH was 17.6%.


The average annual incidence rate of primary ICH recurrence in Singapore is 1.1%, and is associated with previous ischemic stroke and lobar location of index ICH.


Intracerebral hemorrhage; incidence; recurrent; risk factors


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