Brain metastasis in breast cancer: a comprehensive literature review
This comprehensive review provides information on epidemiology, size, grade, cerebral localization, clinical symptoms, treatments, and factors associated with longer survival in 14,599 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer; the molecular features of breast cancers most likely to develop brain metastases and the potential use of these predictive molecular alterations for patient management and future therapeutic targets are also addressed. The review covers the data from 106 articles representing this subject in the era of modern neuroimaging (past 35 years). The incidence of brain metastasis from breast cancer (24 % in this review) is increasing due to advances in both imaging technologies leading to earlier detection of the brain metastases and introduction of novel therapies resulting in longer survival from the primary breast cancer. The mean age at the time of breast cancer and brain metastasis diagnoses was 50.3 and 48.8 years respectively. Axillary node metastasis was noted in 32.8 % of the patients who developed brain metastasis. The median time intervals between the diagnosis of breast cancer to identification of brain metastasis and from identification of brain metastasis to death were 34 and 15 months, respectively. The most common symptoms experienced in patients with brain metastasis consisted of headache (35 %), vomiting (26 %), nausea (23 %), hemiparesis (22 %), visual changes (13 %) and seizures (12 %). A majority of the patients had multiple metastases (54.2 %). Cerebellum and frontal lobes were the most common sites of metastasis (33 and 16 %, respectively). Of the primary tumors for which biomarkers were recorded, 37 % were estrogen receptor (ER)+, 41 % ER−, 36 % progesterone receptor (PR)+, 34 % PR−, 35 % human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+, 41 % HER2−, 27 % triple negative and 18 % triple positive (TP). Treatment in most patients consisted of a multimodality approach often with two or more of the following: whole brain radiation therapy (52 %), chemotherapy (51 %), stereotactic radiosurgery (20 %), surgical resection (14 %), trastuzumab (39 %) for HER2 positive tumors, and hormonal therapy (34 %) for ER and/or PR positive tumors. Factors that had an impact on prognosis included grade and size of the tumor, multiple metastases, presence of extra-cranial metastasis, triple negative or HER2+ biomarker status, and high Karnovsky score. Novel therapies such as application of agents to reduce tumor angiogenesis or alter permeability of the blood brain barrier are being explored with preliminary results suggesting a potential to improve survival after brain metastasis. Other potential therapies based on genetic alterations in the tumor and the microenvironment in the brain are being investigated; these are briefly discussed.
Breast cancer Brain metastasis Biomarkers Hormonal therapy Chemotherapy Extracranial metastasis Surgical resection