An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders

Publication year: 2011
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 28 June 2011
F., López-Muñoz , J.D., Molina , G., Rubio , C., Alamo
Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was “the three cells of the brain”, in which the pineal gland was even called the “appendix of thought”. The pineal gland…

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